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Research and Publication Ethics > For Authors and Reviewers > Research and Publication Ethics

1. Research Ethics

1) All of the manuscripts should be prepared in strict observation of research and publication ethics guidelines recommended by the Council of Science Editors (CSE), International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), and the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE).
2) Any study including human subjects or human data must be reviewed and approved by a responsible institutional review board (IRB). Please refer to the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki (http://www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm) for all investigations involving human materials.
3) Animal experiments also should be reviewed by an appropriate committee (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, IACUC) for the care and use of animals. Also studies with pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee (Institutional Biosafety Committee, IBC). The editor of Korean Journal of Spine (Korean J Spine, KJS) may request submission of copies of informed consents from human subjects in clinical studies or IRB approval documents.

2. Conflict of Interest

1) The corresponding author of an article is asked to inform the Editor of the authors' potential conflicts of interest possibly influencing their interpretation of data. A potential conflict of interest should be disclosed in the cover letter even when the authors are confident that their judgments have not been influenced in preparing the manuscript. Such conflicts may be financial support or private connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems. Disclosure form shall be same with ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest (http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf).
2) The Editor will decide whether the information on the conflict should be included in the published paper. Before publishing such information, the Editor will consult with the corresponding author. In particular, all sources of funding for a study should be explicitly stated. The KJS asks referees to let its Editor know of any conflict of interest before reviewing a particular manuscript.

3. Authorship

1) Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.
2) When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.

4. Redundant Publication and Plagiarism

1) Redundant publication is defined as "reporting (publishing or attempting to publish) substantially the same work more than once, without attribution of the original source(s)". Characteristics of reports that are substantially similar include the following: (a) "at least one of the authors must be common to all reports (if there are no common authors, it is more likely plagiarism than redundant publication)," (b) "the subject or study populations are often the same or similar," (c) "the methodology is typically identical or nearly so," and (d) "the results and their interpretation generally vary little, if at all."
2) When submitting a manuscript, authors should include a letter informing the editor of any potential overlap with other already published material or material being evaluated for publication and should also state how the manuscript submitted to KJS differs substantially from this other material. If all or part of your patient population was previously reported, this should be mentioned in the Materials and Methods, with citation of the appropriate reference(s).

5. Obligation to Register Clinical Trial

1) Clinical trial defined as "any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome" should be registered to the primary registry to be prior publication.
2) KJS accepts the registration in any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trials Portal (http://www.who.int/ictrp/about/details/en/index.html) as well as www.actr.org.au, www.clinicaltrials.gov, www.ISRCTN.org, www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm and www.trialregister.nl. The clinical trial registration number shall be published at the end of the abstract.

6. Resolving Ethical Issues

In case of a suspected ethical problem, the editorial board will follow COPE flowcharts (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts).

For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instruction, International standards for editors and authors (http://publicationethics.org/resources/international-standards-for-editors-and-authors) or ‘Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html)’ can be applied.

Editorial Office
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